Mala, Buddhist rosary, 108 cinabre beads, golden obsidian, 18K gold plated silver, partitioned.
Cinnabar (a family of the HGS formula sulphides), from the Greek kin, the cinnabar was already known since the Neolithic for its use as a pigment in mural murals and religious ceremonies.
The Greek philosopher théopraste (-371/ -288) mentions cinnabar mines in Spain, e, colchide and a meadow of Ephesus (the book of stones) where the cinnabar is extracted from a sandy mineral.
The earliest archaeological testimonies are found in Turkey (-8000), Spain (-5300), then in China (Yangshao culture-4000 and early Bronze age in the culture of Erlitou)
Its ancient use was also attested in China, the Shang dynasty (-1570/ -1045) made use of it during divination (scapulomancy) to make appear and interpret the cracks on turtle shells.
The Chinese used the cinnabar there are 3500 years as a pigment for pottery or as ink. They would have been the first to make Vermillon, at the beginning of our era. Used in Chinese medicine either to clarify the heart and calm the mind, or locally to eliminate toxicity.
Chinese Taoists used it as a drug of immortality, hence Mercurial poisonings. The most famous is that of Emperor Qin Shihuang en-210.
In the Ptolemeous Egypt, the practice of cremation appears. On some fragments of burnt bones, there is a red color, the dye is of the cinnabar intentionally deposited.
In the first century, Dioscoride dedicates a leaflet of his Pharmacopoeia "Materia Medica" to the cinnabar coming from Libya.
In antiquity, the cinnabar was used as a pigment that was generally reserved for the elite. Rome makes it a State monopoly and fixes the selling price. Pliny mentions it under the name minium.
Vitruvius in the 1st century BCE describes the use in painting.
In the third century, Zosimus de Panapolis, a Greek scholar and Alchemist, born in Egypt mentions that the cinnabar is composed of sulfur and mercury.
In 721, the Iranian and Alchemist Geber explained that mercury and sulfur can be combined in cinnabar with heat.
In the middle ages, in the Orient, the most important documents were signed with a cinnabar-based ink (reserved, a Byzantium to the Emperor)
Some illumination is performed with a cinnabar-and blood-based ink.
In 1527: Paracelsus prescribes mercury as a treatment for syphilis
In 1797: Constantin Kirchnoff discovers a process for the production of cinnabar by wet way.
Many resin counterfeits, circulates on the market.
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